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Fine dining, hotel getaways, Champagne, pampering, green fees, and of course casino tokens. Helena, Blackjack became popular across the pond after the French Revolution. It became popular in American gambling circles where bonuses were invented to keep players playing. If your first two cards were the jack of spades and an ace, you got an extra payout. Hence the name Blackjack.
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Blackjack formerly black jack and vingt-un is a casino banking game. It uses decks of 52 cards and descends from a global family of casino banking games known as " twenty-one ".
This family of card games also includes the European games vingt-et-un and pontoon , and the Russian game Ochko [ ru ]. The game is a comparing card game where each player competes against the dealer. Blackjack's immediate precursor was the English version of twenty-one called vingt-un , a game of unknown but likely Spanish provenance.
The first written reference is found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes. Cervantes was a gambler , and the protagonists of his " Rinconete y Cortadillo ", from Novelas Ejemplares , are card cheats in Seville. They are proficient at cheating at veintiuna Spanish for "twenty-one" and state that the object of the game is to reach 21 points without going over and that the ace values 1 or The game is played with the Spanish baraja deck.
Later references to this game are found in France and Spain. The first record of the game in France occurs in  and in Britain during the s and s, but the first rules appeared in Britain in under the name of vingt-un.
The first American rules were an reprint of the English rules. According to popular myth, when vingt-un 'twenty-one' was introduced into the United States in the early s, during the First World War, or in the s, depending on the source , gambling houses offered bonus payouts to stimulate players' interest.
One such bonus was a ten-to-one payout if the player's hand consisted of the ace of spades and a black jack either the jack of clubs or the jack of spades. This hand was called a "blackjack", and the name stuck even after the ten-to-one bonus was withdrawn. French card historian Thierry Depaulis debunks this story, showing that prospectors during the Klondike Gold Rush —99 gave the name blackjack to the game of American vingt-un , the bonus being the usual ace and any point card.
Since blackjack also refers to the mineral zincblende , which was often associated with gold or silver deposits, he suggests that the mineral name was transferred by prospectors to the top bonus hand. He could not find any historical evidence for a special bonus for having the combination of an ace and a black jack. This paper became the foundation of future efforts to beat blackjack. Ed Thorp used Baldwin's hand calculations to verify the basic strategy and later published in Beat the Dealer.
At a blackjack table, the dealer faces five to nine playing positions from behind a semicircular table. Between one and eight standard card decks are shuffled together. To start each round, players place bets in the "betting box" at each position. In jurisdictions allowing back betting, up to three players can be at each position.
The player whose bet is at the front of the betting box controls the position, and the dealer consults the controlling player for playing decisions; the other bettors "play behind".
A player can usually control or bet in as many boxes as desired at a single table, but an individual cannot play on more than one table at a time or place multiple bets within a single box. In many U. The dealer deals from their left "first base" to their far right "third base". Each box gets an initial hand of two cards visible to the people playing on it.
The dealer's hand gets its first card face-up and, in "hole card" games, immediately gets a second card face-down the hole card , which the dealer peeks at but only reveals when it makes the dealer's hand a blackjack. Hole card games are sometimes played on tables with a small mirror or electronic sensor used to peek securely at the hole card. In European casinos, "no hole card" games are prevalent; the dealer's second card is not drawn until the players have played their hands.
Dealers deal the cards from one or two handheld decks, from a dealer's shoe or from a shuffling machine. Single cards are dealt to each wagered-on position clockwise from the dealer's left, followed by a single card to the dealer, followed by an additional card to each of the positions in play. The players' initial cards may be dealt face-up or face-down more common in single-deck games.
The object of the game is to win money by creating card totals higher than those of the dealer's hand but not exceeding 21, or by stopping at a total in the hope that the dealer will bust. On their turn, players choose to "hit" take a card , "stand" end their turn and stop without taking a card , "double" double their wager, take a single card, and finish , "split" if the two cards have the same value, separate them to make two hands , or "surrender" give up a half-bet and retire from the game.
Number cards count as their number, the jack, queen, and king "face cards" or "pictures" count as 10, and aces count as either 1 or 11 according to the player's choice. If the total exceeds 21 points, it busts, and all bets on it immediately lose. After the boxes have finished playing, the dealer's hand is resolved by drawing cards until the hand achieves a total of 17 or higher. If the dealer has a total of 17 including an ace valued as 11 a "soft 17" , some games require the dealer to stand while other games require another draw.
The dealer never doubles, splits, or surrenders. If the dealer busts, all remaining player hands win. If the dealer does not bust, each remaining bet wins if its hand is higher than the dealer's and loses if it is lower. A player total of 21 on the first two cards is a "natural" or "blackjack", and the player wins immediately unless the dealer also has one, in which case the hand ties. In the case of a tie "push" or "standoff" , bets are returned without adjustment.
A blackjack beats any hand that is not a blackjack, even one with a value of Wins are paid out at even money, except for player blackjacks, which are traditionally paid out at 3 to 2 odds.
Many casinos today pay blackjacks at less than This is common in single-deck blackjack games. Blackjack games usually offer a side bet called insurance , which may be placed when the dealer's face-up card is an ace. Additional side bets, such as "Dealer Match" which pays when the player's cards match the dealer's up card, are also sometimes available.
After the initial two cards, the player has up to five options: "hit", "stand", "double down", "split", or "surrender". Each option has a corresponding hand signal. Hand signals help the " eye in the sky " make a video recording of the table, which resolves disputes and identifies dealer mistakes.
It is also used to protect the casino against dealers who steal chips or players who cheat. Recordings can also identify advantage players.
When a player's hand signal disagrees with their words, the hand signal takes precedence. A hand can "hit" as often as desired until the total is 21 or more.
Players must stand on a total of After a bust or a stand, play proceeds to the next hand clockwise around the table. After the last hand is played, the dealer reveals the hole card and stands or draws according to the game's rules. When the outcome of the dealer's hand is established, any hands with bets remaining on the table are resolved usually in counterclockwise order ; bets on losing hands are forfeited, the bet on a push is left on the table, and winners are paid out.
If the dealer shows an ace, an "insurance" bet is allowed. Insurance is a side bet that the dealer has a blackjack. The dealer asks for insurance bets before the first player plays. Insurance bets of up to half the player's current bet are placed on the "insurance bar" above the player's cards.
If the dealer has a blackjack, insurance pays 2 to 1. In most casinos, the dealer looks at the down card and pays off or takes the insurance bet immediately. In other casinos, the payoff waits until the end of the play. In face-down games, if a player has more than one hand, they can look at all their hands before deciding. This is the only condition where a player can look at multiple hands.
Insurance bets lose money in the long run. The dealer has a blackjack less than one-third of the time. In some games, players can also take insurance when a valued card shows, but the dealer has an ace in the hole less than one-tenth of the time. The insurance bet is susceptible to advantage play. It is advantageous to make an insurance bet whenever the hole card has more than a one in three chance of being a ten.
Card counting techniques can identify such situations. Note: Where changes in the house edge due to changes in the rules are stated in percentage terms, the difference is usually stated here in percentage points , not a percentage. Blackjack rules are generally set by regulations that establish permissible rule variations at the casino's discretion. Most of the house's edge comes from the fact that the player loses when both the player and dealer bust. The house edge for games where blackjack pays 6 to 5 instead of 3 to 2 increases by about 1.
Player deviations from basic strategy also increase the house edge. Each game has a rule about whether the dealer must hit or stand on soft 17, which is generally printed on the table surface. The variation where the dealer must hit soft 17 is abbreviated "H17" in blackjack literature, with "S17" used for the stand-on-soft variation.
Substituting an "H17" rule with an "S17" rule in a game benefits the player, decreasing the house edge by about 0.
All things being equal, using fewer decks decreases the house edge. This mainly reflects an increased likelihood of player blackjack, since if the player draws a ten on their first card, the subsequent probability of drawing an ace is higher with fewer decks.
It also reflects the decreased likelihood of a blackjack—blackjack push in a game with fewer decks. Casinos generally compensate by tightening other rules in games with fewer decks, to preserve the house edge or discourage play altogether. When offering single-deck blackjack games, casinos are more likely to disallow doubling on soft hands or after splitting, restrict resplitting, require higher minimum bets, and pay the player less than for a winning blackjack.
The following table illustrates the mathematical effect on the house edge of the number of decks, by considering games with various deck counts under the following ruleset: double after split allowed, resplit to four hands allowed, no hitting split aces, no surrendering, double on any two cards, original bets only lost on dealer blackjack, dealer hits soft 17, and cut-card used.
The increase in house edge per unit increase in the number of decks is most dramatic when comparing the single-deck game to the two-deck game, and becomes progressively smaller as more decks are added.
Surrender, for those games that allow it, is usually not permitted against a dealer blackjack; if the dealer's first card is an ace or ten, the hole card is checked to make sure there is no blackjack before surrender is offered. This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender. The alternative, "early" surrender, gives the player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no hole card game. Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender.
For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one-in-four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.
If the cards of a post-split hand have the same value, most games allow the player to split again, or "resplit".
O que e "2024 Regle blackjack 21"?
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O "2024 Regle blackjack 21" e legal no Brasil?
Sim. blackjack 21 règleSe considerado só o público classificado como "opinião pública não militante" (que matrimonia-mariage.fr chama de "nem nem", por serem perfis.